Study References

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2. Institute NHLaB. Morbidity and mortality: 2009 chart book on cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases. 2012.

3. Bhatt SP, Dransfield MT. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 2013.

4. Egred M, Shaw S, Mohammad B, Waitt P, Rodrigues E. Under-use of beta-blockers in patients with ischaemic heart disease and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians. 2005;98(7):493-7.

5. Gottlieb SS, McCarter RJ, Vogel RA. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality among high-risk and low-risk patients after myocardial infarction. The New England journal of medicine. 1998;339(8):489-97.

6. Dransfield MT, Rowe SM, Johnson JE, Bailey WC, Gerald LB. Use of beta blockers and the risk of death in hospitalised patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax. 2008;63(4):301-5.

7. Mancini GB, Etminan M, Zhang B, Levesque LE, FitzGerald JM, Brophy JM. Reduction of morbidity and mortality by statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2006;47(12):2554-60.

8. Rutten FH, Zuithoff NP, Hak E, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Beta-blockers may reduce mortality and risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Archives of internal medicine. 2010;170(10):880-7.

9. Etminan M, Jafari S, Carleton B, FitzGerald JM. Beta-blocker use and COPD mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC pulmonary medicine. 2012;12:48.

10. Criner GJ, Connett JE, Aaron SD, Albert RK, Bailey WC, Casaburi R, et al. Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD. N Engl J Med. 2014.

11. Albert RK, Connett J, Bailey WC, Casaburi R, Cooper JA, Jr., Criner GJ, et al. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations of COPD. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(8):689-98.

12. Murphy DE, Chaudhry Z, Almoosa KF, Panos RJ. High prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among veterans in the urban midwest. Mil Med. 2011;176(5):552-60.

13.  Bhatt SP, Connett JE, Voelker H, Lindberg SM, Westfall E, Wells JM, Lazarus SC, Criner GJ, Dransfield MT.  β-Blockers for the prevention of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (βLOCK COPD): a randomised controlled study protocol.  BMJ Open. 2016 Jun 7;6(6):e012292. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012292.